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Sociobiology


Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines which attempts to explain social behavior in animal species by considering the Darwinian advantages specific behaviors may have. It is often considered a branch of biology and sociology, but also draws from ethology, anthropology, evolution, zoology, archaeology, population genetics and other disciplines. Within the study of human societies, sociobiology is closely related to the fields of human behavioral ecology and evolutionary psychology.

 
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Effect of Ocean Acidification on Marine Fish Sperm (Baltic Cod: Ga...

By: V. Stiebens; C. Clemmesen; A. Y. Frommel; J. Havenhand

Description: Leibnitz-Institute of Marine Sciences IFM-GEOMAR, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitiv...

Alavi, S. M. H. and Cosson, J.: Sperm motility and fertilizing ability in the persian sturgeon acipenser persicus, Aquac. Res., 36, 841–850, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01292.x, 2005.; Alavi, S. M. H. and Cosson, J.: Sperm motility in fishes, (II) Effects of ions and osmolality: A review, Cell Biol. Int., 30, 1–14, 2006.; Baynes, S. M., Scott, A. P., and Dawson, A. P.: Rainbow-trout, salmo-gairdnerii richardson, spermatozoa – effects of cations and ph on motility, J. Fi...

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Chemodiversity in Terpene Emissions at a Boreal Scots Pine Stand :...

By: J. Aalto; H. Hakola; M. Henriksson; J. Bäck; M. Boy; Q. He

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland. Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles.

Our aim was to...

Arneth, A., Niinemets, Ü., Pressley, S., Bäck, J., Hari, P., Karl, T., Noe, S., Prentice, I. C., Serça, D., Hickler, T., Wolf, A., and Smith, B.: Process-based estimates of terrestrial ecosystem isoprene emissions: incorporating the effects of a direct CO2-isoprene interaction, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 31–53, doi:10.5194/acp-7-31-2007, 2007.; Atkinson, R. and Arey, J.: Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of biogen...

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Assessment of the Importance of Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to...

By: C. Müller; L. Klemedtsson; P. Boeckx; T. Rütting

Description: Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 461, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. The nitrogen (N) cycle contains two different processes of dissimilatory nitrate (NO3) reduction, denitrification and dissimilatory NO3 reduction to ammonium (DNRA). While there is general agreement that the denitrification process takes place in many soils, the occurrence and importance ...

Ambus, P., Mosier, A. R., and Christensen, S.: Nitrogen turnover rates in a riparian fen determined by 15N dilution, Biol. Fert. Soils, 14, 230–236, 1992.; Behrendt, U., Schumann, P., Stieglmeier, M., Pukall, R., Augustin, J., Spröer, C., Schwendner, P., Moissl-Eichinger, C., and Andreas, U.: Characterization of heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria with respiratory ammonification and denitrification activity – description of Paenibacillus uliginis sp. nov....

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Marine Bacteria in Deep Arctic and Antarctic Ice Cores: a Proxy fo...

By: P. B. Price; R. C. Bay

Description: Physics Department, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Using fluorescence spectrometry to map autofluorescence of chlorophyll (Chl) and tryptophan (Trp) versus depth in polar ice cores in the US National Ice Core Laboratory, we found that the Chl and Trp concentrations often showed an annual modulation of up to 25%, with peaks at depths corresponding to local summers. Using epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM) trigge...

Franklin, D. J., Choi, C. J., Hughes, C., Malin, G., and Berges, J. A.: Effect of dead phytoplankton cells on the apparent efficiency of photosystem II, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 382, 35–40, 2009.; French, C. S., Smith, J. H. C., Virgin, H. I., and Airth, R. L.: Fluorescence-spectrum curves of chlorophylls, pheophytins, phycoerythrins, phycocyanins and hypericin, Plant Physiol., 31, 369–374, 1956.; Gregg, W. W.: Assimilation of SeaWiFS ocean chlorophyll data into a three-di...

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Ocean Acidification Mediates Photosynthetic Response to Uv Radiati...

By: V. E. Villafañe; K. Gao; E. W. Helbling; Y. Li

Description: State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is responsible for progressive ocean acidification, ocean warming as well as decreased thickness of upper mixing layer (UML), thus exposing phytoplankton cells not only to lower pH and higher temperatures but also to higher levels of solar UV radiation. In order to evaluate the combined effects of ocean acidi...

Alexiadis, A.: Global warming and human activity: A model for studying the potential instability of the carbon dioxide/temperature feedback mechanism, Ecol. Model., 203, 243–256, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.11.020, 2007.; Allakhverdiev, S., Kreslavski, V. D., Klimov, V. V., Los, D. A., Carpentier, R., and Mohanty, P.: Heat stress: an overview of molecular responses in photosynthesis, Photosynth. Res., 98, 541...

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Cajander Larch (Larix Cajanderi) Biomass Distribution, Fire Regime...

By: H. D. Alexander; P. S. A. Beck; M. M. Loranty; M. C. MacK; L. T. Berner; S. J. Goetz

Description: The Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644, USA. Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes, and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyze post-fire accumulati...

Abaimov, A. P., Zyryanova, O. A., Prokushkin, S. G., Koike, T., and Matsuura, Y.: Forest Ecosystems of the Cryolithic Zone of Siberia: Regional Features, Mechanisms of Stability and Pyrogenic Changes, Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 1, 1–10, 2000.; Abaimov, A. P.: Geographic Distribution and Genetics of Siberian Larch Species, in: Permafrost Ecosystems: Siberian Larch Forests, edited by: Osawa, A., Zyryanova, O. A., Matsuura, Y., Kajimoto, T., and Wein, R. W., Sprin...

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Refugia of Marine Fish in the Northeast Atlantic During the Last G...

By: A. Morales-muñiz; D. Heinrich; A. J. Kettle; L. A. Vøllestad; E. Roselló-izquierdo

Description: Department of Earth Science, SUNY-Oswego, Oswego, New York, USA. Archaeozoological finds of the remains of marine and amphihaline fish from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ca. 21 ka ago show evidence of very different species ranges compared to the present. We have shown how an ecological niche model (ENM) based on palaeoclimatic reconstructions of sea surface temperature and bathymetry can be used to effectively predict the spatial range of marine fish ...

Acolas, M. L., Veron, V., Jourdan, H., Begout, M. L., Sabatie, M. R., and Baglinière, J. L.: Upstream migration and reproductive patterns of a population of allis shad in a small river (L'Aulne, Brittany, France), ICES J. Mar. Sci., 63, 476–484, doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.07.023, 2006.; Addison, J. A. and Hart, M. W.: Colonization, dispersal, and hybridization influence phylogeography of North Atlantic sea urchi...

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An Integrated User-friendly Arcmap Tool for Bivariate Statistical ...

By: Z. M. Yusoff; H. Z. M. Shafri; B. Pradhan; M. S. Tehrany; M. N. Jebur

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, Geospatial Information Science Research Center (GISRC), Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Modelling and classification difficulties are fundamental issues in natural hazard assessment. A geographic information system (GIS) is a domain that requires users to use various tools to perform different types of spatial modelling. Bivariate statistical analysis (BSA) assists...

Awasthi, A. and Chauhan, S. S.: Using AHP and Dempster–Shafer theory for evaluating sustainable transport solutions, Environ. Modell. Softw., 26, 787–796, 2011.; Akgun, A., Sezer, E. A., Nefeslioglu, H. A., Gokceoglu, C., and Pradhan, B.: An easy-to-use MATLAB program (MamLand) for the assessment of landslide susceptibility using a Mamdani fuzzy algorithm, Comput. Geosci., 38, 23–34, 2012.; Barreca, G., Bonforte, A., and Neri, M.: A pilot GIS database of active faults of...

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Stakeholder Discourse and Water Management – Implementation of the...

By: P. S. Lupo Stanghellini; D. Collentine

Description: Dept. of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, Natural Science Museum of Trento, Via Calepina 14, 38100 Trento, Italy. The Water Framework Directive (WFD, directive 2000/60/EC) was created to ensure the sustainable use of water resources in the European Union. A central guideline included throughout the directive is a call for the participation of stakeholders in the management of these resources. Involving stakeholders is an important step to ensure th...

Arnstein, S.: A Ladder of Citizen Participation, J. Am. I. Planners, 35, 216–224, 1969.; Beierle, T.: Using Social Goals to Evaluate Public Participation in Environmental Decisions, Policy Study Review, 16, 75–103, 1999.; Beierle, T.: The Quality of Stakeholder-Based Decisions, Risk Anal., 22, 739–749, 2002.; Berry, J. M., Portney, K. E., and Thomson, K.: The rebirth of urban democracy, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USA, 1993.; Bishop, P. and Davis, G.: Mapping P...

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Satellite Radar Altimetry for Monitoring Small Rivers and Lakes in...

By: K.-h. Tseng; H. Hidayat; C. K. Shum; Y. B. Sulistioadi; F. Setiawan; A. Suhardiman; S. Sunarso; M. Sumaryono

Description: Hydrological Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods (>1 week) because of its low temporal and spatial resolutions (i.e., satellite ...

Alsdorf, D. E. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Tracking fresh water from space, Science, 301, 1491–1494, 2003.; Bamber, J. L.: Ice sheet altimeter processing scheme, Int. J. Remote Sens., 15, 925–938, 1994.; Bao, L., Lu, Y., and Wang, Y.: Improved retracking algorithm for oceanic altimeter waveforms, Prog. Nat. Sci., 19, 195–203, 2009.; Benveniste, J. and Defrenne, D.: Radar Altimetry Processing for Inland Waters: Introduction and Background Review, Slides presented at Workshop ...

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Satellite Radar Altimetry for Monitoring Small River and Lakes in ...

By: H. Hidayat; C. K. Shum; K.-h. Tseng; A. Suhardiman; M. Sumaryono; F. Setiawan; Y. B. Sulistioadi; S. Sunarso

Description: Division of Geodetic Science, School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable for hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. For the case of satellite radar altimetry, limited temporal resolutions (e.g., satellite revisit period) prohibit the use of this method for a short (< weekly) interval monitoring of water level or discharge. On the other hand, the curr...

Alsdorf, D. E. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Tracking fresh water from space, Science, 301, 1491–1494, 2003.; Bamber, J. L: Ice sheet altimeter processing scheme, Int. J. Remote Sens., 15, 925–938, 1994.; Bao, L., Lu, Y., and Wang, Y.: Improved retracking algorithm for oceanic altimeter waveforms, Prog. Nat. Sci., 19, 195–203, 2009.; Benveniste, J. and Defrenne, D.: Radar Altimetry Processing for Inland Waters: Introduction and Background Review, Slides presented at Workshop o...

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Stakeholder Discourse and Water Management in a Catchment in North...

By: P. S. Lupo Stanghellini; D. Collentine

Description: Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, Natural Science Museum of Trento, Via Calepina 14, 38100 Trento, Italy. The Water Framework Directive (WFD; directive 2000/60/EC) was created to ensure the sustainable use of water resources in the European Union. A central guideline included throughout the directive is a call for the participation of stakeholders in the management of these resources. Involving stakeholders is an important step to ensu...

Arnstein, S.: A Ladder of Citizen Participation, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35, 216–224, 1969.; Beierle, T.: Using Social Goals to Evaluate Public Participation in Environmental Decisions, Policy Study Review, 16, 75–103, 1999.; Beierle, T.: The Quality of Stakeholder-Based Decisions, Risk Analysis, 22, 739–749, 2002.; Berry, J. M., Portney, K. E., and Thomson, K.: The rebirth of urban democracy, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USA, 1993.; Bisho...

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Hydroviz: Evaluation of a Web-based Tool for Improving Hydrology E...

By: E. Habib; D. Williams; F. Hossain; Y. Ma; H. Sharif

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 42991, Lafayette, LA, 70504, USA. HydroViz is a web-based, student-centered, highly visual educational tool designed to support active learning in the field of Engineering Hydrology. The development of HydroViz is informed by recent advances in hydrologic data, numerical simulations, visualization and web-based technologies. An evaluation study was conducted to de...

Bourget, P., G.: Integrated water resources management curriculum in the United States: results of a recent survey, J. Contemp. Water Res. Educ., 135, 107–114, 2006.; Chatterji, M.: Evidence on what works: an argument for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) evaluation designs, Educ. Res., 34, 14–24, 2005.; CUAHSI: Water in a Dynamic Planet: a Five-Year Strategic Plan for Water Science, the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., Washingt...

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Genetic Inference of Group Dynamics and Female Kin Structure in a ...

By: J. Head; C. Boesch; M. M. Robbins; M. Arandjelovic; L. Vigilant

Description: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Dispersal and grouping patterns form the foundations of social interactions in group-living mammals and are the outcomes of a complex interplay between inbreeding avoidance, kin cooperation and competition, predation pressure and food resource distribution. In species where both sexes disperse, the potential for kin-biased associations would seem limited. In on...

Arandjelovic, M., Guschanski, K., Schubert, G., Harris, T. R., Thalmann, O., Siedel, H., and Vigilant, L.: Two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction improves the speed and accuracy of genotyping using DNA from noninvasive and museum samples, Mol. Ecol. Resour., 9, 28–36, 2009.; Arandjelovic, M., Head, J., Kuehl, H., Boesch, C., Robbins, M. M., Maisels, F., and Vigilant, L.: Effective non-invasive genetic monitoring of multiple wild western gorilla groups, Biol. Conser...

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Effects of Within-patch Heterogeneity on Connectivity in Pond-bree...

By: M.-b. Pontoppidan; G. Nachman

Description: Section for Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The metapopulation framework presumes the habitat of a local population to be continuous and homogenous, and patch area is often used as a proxy for population size. Many populations of pond-breeding amphibians are assumed to follow metapopulation dynamics, and connectivity is mostly measured between breeding ponds. However...

Baker, J. M. R. and Halliday, T. R.: Amphibian colonization of new ponds in an agricultural landscape, Herpetol. J., 9, 55–63, 1999.; Bender, D. J. and Fahrig, L.: Matrix structure obscures the relationship between interpatch movement and patch size and isolation, Ecology, 86, 1023–1033, 2005.; Bowman, J., Cappuccino, N., and Fahrig, L.: Patch size and population density: the effect of immigration behavior, Conserv. Ecol., 6, 9, 2002.; Chin, K. S. and Taylor, P. D.: Inte...

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The United States Democratic Review : Volume 0023, Issue 121 July ...

By: J. and H. G. Langley

Description:The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature

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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry

By: Ph.D. Albert Martini

The 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologicall...

INTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the phil...

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References

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Amarasinghe, U.S. 2002. The fishery and population dynamics of Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) in a shallow irrigation reservoir in Sri Lanka. Asian Fisheries Science 715: 7?20. Amarasinghe, U.S. & De Silva, S.S. 1992. Population dynamics of Oreochromis mossambicus and O. niloticus (Cichlidae) in two reservoirs in Sri Lanka. Asian Fisheries Science 5: 37?61. Amarasinghe, U.S. & De Silva, S.S. 1996. Effect of Oreochromi...

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World Health Organization : Year 2000 ; Communicable Diseases and ...

By: David Asher

Medical Reference Publication

Opening In 1986 the first case of a previously unrecognized neurologic disease of cattle was diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK). Within a few years it was clear that there was an evolving epidemic outbreak of a new transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). To date over one hundred and seventy-five thousand cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (BSE) have been reported from the UK, and over eleven hundred in eight countries of continental Europe (rang...

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World Health Organization Publication : The Second Ten Year of the...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

THE scientijic discoveries and practical achievements of the past decade have stirred the imagination and roused our expectations for the future. They have also served to confirm that health is purchasable. This truth, increasingly accepted by modern societies, is well on its way to realization. To this result various emotions and trends have undoubtedly contributed. Amongst them we can recognize compassion for suffering, the feeling that life should be safeguarded, and ...

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