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Sociobiology


Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines which attempts to explain social behavior in animal species by considering the Darwinian advantages specific behaviors may have. It is often considered a branch of biology and sociology, but also draws from ethology, anthropology, evolution, zoology, archaeology, population genetics and other disciplines. Within the study of human societies, sociobiology is closely related to the fields of human behavioral ecology and evolutionary psychology.

 
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The United States Democratic Review : Volume 0018, Issue 95 May 18...

By: J. and H. G. Langley

Description:The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature

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Dialectics of Force: Ontobia

By: Alex Battler

In this theoretically sophisticated monograph Dr. Alex Battler formulates a new ontological interpretation of the category of force: - a definition of force as an ontological category; - the manifestation of force in the inorganic world within the framework of the idea of the Big Bang; - a definition of force in the organic world to determine the boundary between life and nonlife; - a solution to the mind–body problem (i.e., what consciousness and thought are),...

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The United States Democratic Review : Volume 0025, Issue 138 Dec 1...

By: J. and H. G. Langley

Description:The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature

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The United States Democratic Review : Volume 0028, Issue 154 April...

By: J. and H. G. Langley

Description:The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature

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K's Bhoomika

By: Manohar Asija

Having lost her mother, and virtually rendered `orphan`, in the absence of `father`, a little girl Named Bhoomika, by dint of sheer circumstances, happens to reach a virgin teacher. Here, the `blessed opportunity for education` awaits her, as she is inspired and guided by this benevolent lady towards higher education. Once, she was offered a part-time job of `a reader for a blind class-fellow` of hers at Khadi Degree College, Guwahati: and she gladly accepted it. Of cou...

"In fact, I had never spoken to her even a single word, though she continued to send me signals for initiating a dialogue with her. I had to go to fetch my daily quota of water from the water-tap, provided at the back of her tenement, for all the four segments, in the vicinity. Almost every time, we had to place our buckets or utensils, in a queue, while waiting for our turn. Being shy of passing through the front lane, while approaching the water-tap, I preferred to wal...

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K's Bhoomika

By: Manohar Asija

Having lost her mother, and virtually rendered `orphan`, in the absence of `father`, a little girl Named Bhoomika, by dint of sheer circumstances, happens to reach a virgin teacher. Here, the `blessed opportunity for education` awaits her, as she is inspired and guided by this benevolent lady towards higher education. Once, she was offered a part-time job of `a reader for a blind class-fellow` of hers at Khadi Degree College, Guhahati: and she gladly accepted it. Of cou...

"In fact, I had never spoken to her even a single word, though she continued to send me signals for initiating a dialogue with her. I had to go to fetch my daily quota of water from the water-tap, provided at the back of her tenement, for all the four segments, in the vicinity. Almost every time, we had to place our buckets or utensils, in a queue, while waiting for our turn. Being shy of passing through the front lane, while approaching the water-tap, I preferred to wal...

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An Analysis of the Contrasting Fates of Locust Swarms on the Plain...

By: H. D. Shen; Y. F. Li; X. Ke; G. Yu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Prior to ~1880 AD locust swarms periodically raged across both the North American Plains (NAP) and East Asian Plains (EAP). After this date, locust outbreaks almost never recurred on the NAP but have continued to cause problems on the EAP. The large quantities of pesticides used in the major agriculture r...

Allan, R. P. and Soden, B. J.: Atmospheric warming and the amplification of precipitation extremes, Science, 321, 1481–1484, 2008.; Bomar, C. R.: The Rocky Mountain Locust: Extinction and the American Experience, National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, available at: http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/collection/detail.asp?case_id=442&id=442 and

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Short- and Long-term Consequences of Larval Stage Exposure to Cons...

By: C. J. Gobler; S. C. Talmage

Description: Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, 239 Montauk Hwy, Southampton, NY 11968, USA. While larval bivalves are highly sensitive to ocean acidification, the basis for this sensitivity and the longer-term implications of this sensitivity are unclear. Experiments were performed to assess the short-term (days) and long-term (months) consequences of larval stage exposure to varying CO2 concentrations for calcifying bivalv...

Albright, R., Mason, B., and Langdon, C.: Effect of aragonite saturation state on settlement and post-settlement growth of Porites astreoides larvae, Coral Reefs, 27, 485–490, 2008.; Barton, A., Hales, B., Waldbusser, G. G., Langdon, C., and Feely, R. A.: The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally elevated carbon dioxide levels: implications for near-term ocean acidification effects, Limnol. Oceanograph. 57, 698–710, 2012...

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Distribution and Biophysical Processes of Beaded Streams in Arctic...

By: B. M. Jones; M. S. Whitman; G. Grosse; K. C. Heim; C. D. Arp; B. V. Gaglioti

Description: Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale ...

Armstrong, J. B., Schindler, D. E., Ruff, C. P., Brooks, G. T., Bentley, K. E., and Torgersen, C. E.: Diel horizontal migration in streams: Juvenile fish exploit spatial heterogeneity in thermal and trophic resources, Ecology, 94, 2066–2075, doi:10.1890/12-1200.1, 2013.; Arp, C. D., Schmidt, J. C., Baker, M. A., and Myers, A. K.: Stream geomorphology in a mountain lake district: hydraulic geometry, sediment sources and sink...

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Secondary Calcification and Dissolution Respond Differently to Fut...

By: N. J. Silbiger; M. J. Donahue

Description: University of Hawaii, at Manoa, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, PO Box 1346, Kaneohe, Hawaii. Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenar...

Littler, M. M.: The population and community structure of Hawaiian fringing-reef crustose corallinaceae (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales), J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 11, 103–120, 1973.; Lowe, R. J., Falter, J. L., Monismith, S. G., and Atkinson, M. J.: A numerical study of circulation in a coastal reef-lagoon system, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 114, C06022, doi:10.1029/2008JC005081, 2009a.; Lowe, R. J., Falter, J. L., Monismith, ...

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Impact of Ocean Acidification and Elevated Temperatures on Early J...

By: U. Riebesell; T. Boxhammer; J. Büdenbender; S. Lischka

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel, Germany. Due to their aragonitic shell thecosome pteropods may be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This applies specifically to species inhabiting Arctic surface waters that are projected to become locally undersaturated with respect to aragonite as early as 2016. This study investigated the effects of rising pCO2 pa...

Fabry, V. J., Seibel, B. A., Feely, R. A., and Orr, J. C.: Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 65, 414–432, 2008.; Falk-Petersen, S., Sargent, J. R., Kwasniewski, S., Gulliksen, B., and Millar, R. M.: Lipids and fatty acids in Clione limacina and Limacina helicina in Svalbard waters and the Arctic Ocean: trophic implications, Polar Biol., 24, 163–170, 2001.; Gannefors, C., Böer, M., Kattner, G., Graeve,...

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A Probe Into the Different Fates of Locust Swarms in the Plains of...

By: X. Ke; Y. Li; D. Johnson; G. Yu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Locust swarms had periodically raged in both North American Plains (NAP) and East Asian Plains (EAP) before 1880 AD. After this period, the locust outbreaks almost never recurred in NAP but have continued to occur in EAP. Since large quantities of pesticides were used in the major agriculture regions of N...

Allan, R. P. and Soden, B. J.: Atmospheric warming and the amplification of precipitation extremes, Science, 321, 1481–1484, 2008.; Bomar, C. R.: The Rocky Mountain Locust: Extinction and the American Experience, National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, available at: http://www.sciencecases.org/locusts, 2008.; Chen, J. X.: Historical locust records in China, Annuals of Insect Bureau of Zhejiang Province, 1935. (i...

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A Geomorphology-based Approach for Digital Elevation Model Fusion ...

By: P. Vinayaraj; S. Masumoto; G. Yonezawa; V. Raghavan; T. A. Tran

Description: Graduate School for Creative Cities, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan. Global digital elevation models (DEM) are considered a source of vital spatial information and find wide use in several applications. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM (GDEM) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEM offer almost global coverage and provide elevation data for geospatial analysis. However, GDEM and SRTM sti...

Deng, Y., Wilson, J. P., and Bauer, B. O.: DEM resolution dependencies of terrain attributes across a landscape, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 21, 187–213, doi:10.1080/13658810600894364, 2007.; Dickson, B. G. and Beier, P.: Quantifying the influence of topographic position on cougar (Puma concolor) movement in southern Califonia, USA, J. Zoology, 271, 270–277, 2006.; Dowding, S., Kuuskivi, T., and Li, X.: Void fill of S...

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New Specimen of Cacops Woehri Indicates Differences in the Ontogen...

By: A. Brar; R. R. Reisz; N. B. Fröbisch

Description: Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. The Lower Permian Dolese locality has produced numerous exquisitely preserved tetrapod fossils representing members of a lower Permian upland fauna. Therein, at least nine taxa of the clade Dissorophoidea, ranging in size from the large predaceous trematopid Acheloma to the miniaturized amphibamid Doleserpeton, h...

Anderson, J. S.: Focal review: The origin(s) of modern amphibians, Evol. Biol., 35, 231–247, 2008.; Anderson, J. S. and Bolt, J. R.: New Information on Amphibamids (Tetrapoda, Temnospondyli) from Richards Spur (Fort Sill), Oklahoma, J. Vertebr. Paleontol., 33, 553–567, 2013.; Anderson, J. S., Henrici, A., Sumida, S. S., Martens, T., and Berman, D. S.: Georgenthalia clavinasica, a new genus and species of dissorophoid temnospondyl from the early Permian of Germany,...

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A Study on Distribution of Chlorophyll-A in the Coastal Waters of ...

By: N. Bin Abu Bakar; S. Jamshidi

Description: School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia. Phytoplankton as chlorophyll-containing organisms is the first step of production in most marine processes and food chains. Nutrient enhancement in the seawater due to the discharge of agricultural, industrial, and urban wastes threatens the Caspian Sea environment. Increasing concentrations of chlorophyll-a in seawater, in reaction to the elevation of nutrient supply can ...

Asadullayeva, E. and Alekperov, I.: Free-living ciliates of the Anzali Wetland of the Caspian Sea, Turkish Journal Zoology, 31, 143–149, 2007.; CEP: Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis for the Caspian Sea; Baku, Azerbaijan, pp. 36, 2002.; CEP: Identification of the extent and causes of cyan bacterial bloom in September-October 2005 and development of the capacity for observation and prediction of HAB in the Southern Caspian Sea using Remote Sensing Technique, MHI, Ukraine,...

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Predicting Parameters of Degradation Succession Processes of Tibet...

By: X. L. Xu; F. W. Zhang; Y. K. Li; S. L. Liu; X. W. Guo; Y. G. Du; L. Lin; G. M. Cao

Description: Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China. In the past two decades, increasing human activity (i.e., overgrazing) in the Tibetan Plateau has strongly influenced plant succession processes, resulting in the degradation of alpine grasslands. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose the degree of degradation to enable implementation of appropriate management for sustainable exploitation and protection of alpine ...

Ali, K., Kraines, S., Hoang, L., and Yarime, M.: Advancing quantification methods of sustainability: a critical examination emergy, exergy, ecological footprint, and ecological information-based approaches, Ecol. Indic., 37, 81–89, 2014.; Angassa, A.: Effects of grazing intensity and bush encroachment on herbaceous on species and rangeland condition in southern Ethiopia, Land Degrad. Dev., 25, 438–451, doi:10.1002/ldr.2160, ...

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The Interdisciplinary Nature of Soil : Volume 1, Issue 1 (16/01/2015)

By: J. Mataix-solera; K. Van Oost; E. C. Brevik; J. N. Quinton; J. Six; A. Cerdà; L. Pereg

Description: Department of Natural Sciences, Dickinson State University, Dickinson, ND, USA. The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists, amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. In more recent years this list has grown to include anthropologists, economists, engineers, medical professionals, military professionals, sociologists, and even artist...

Abadi Ghadim, A. K.: Water repellency: a whole-farm bio-economic perspective, J. Hydrol., 231–232, 396–405, 2000.; Bachmann, J., Guggenberger, G., Baumgartl, T., Ellerbrock, R. H., Urbanek, E., Goebel, M.-O., Kaiser, K., Horn, R., and Fischer, W. R.: Physical carbon-sequestration mechanisms under special consideration of soil wettability, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sc., 171, 14–26, 2008.; Baer, S. G., Rice, C. W., and Blair, J. M.: Assessment of soil quality in fields with shor...

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Editorial the Interdisciplinary Nature of Soil : Volume 1, Issue 1...

By: L. Pereg; J. Mataix-solera; J. Six; A. Cerdá; J. N. Quinton; K. Van Oost; E. C. Brevik

Description: Department of Natural Sciences, Dickinson State University, Dickinson, ND, USA. The holistic study of soils requires an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, chemists, geologists, and physicists amongst others, something that has been true from the earliest days of the field. This approach has been strengthened and reinforced as current research continues to use experts trained in both soil science and related fields and by the wide array of ...

Abadi Ghadim, A. K.: Water repellency: a whole-farm bio-economic perspective, J. Hydrol., 231–232, 396–405, 2000.; Alaoui, A., and Goetz, B.: Dye tracer and infiltration experiments to investigate macropore flow, Geoderma, 144, 279–286, 2008.; Bachmann, J., Guggenberger, G., Baumgartl, T., Ellerbrock, R. H., Urbanek, E., Goebel, M.-O., Kaiser, K., Horn, R., and Fischer, W. R.: Physical carbon-sequestration mechanisms under special consideration of soil wettability, J. Pl...

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Study of Microarthopod Communities to Assess Soil Quality in Diffe...

By: F. Tarchi; G. Valboa; M. R. Lottero; D. Goggioli; N. Vignozzi; E. Gagnarli; L. Corino; S. Guidi; R. Nannelli; S. Simoni

Description: CRA-ABP, Consiglio per Ricerca e Sperimentazione in Agricoltura – Research Centre for Agrobiology and Pedology, Firenze, Italy. Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly requested. The determination of communities' structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In this study, in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy), the ef...

Behan-Pelletier, V. M.: Oribatid mites in agroecosystems: role for bioindication, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 74, 411–423, 1999.; Andrenelli, M. C., Fiori, V., and Pellegrini, S.: Soil particle-size analysis up to 250 micron by X-ray granulometer: device set-up and regressions for data conversion into pipette-equivalent values, Geoderma, 192, 380–393, 2013.; Caruso, T. and Migliorini, M.: Micro-arthropod communities under human disturbance: is taxonomic aggregation a valuabl...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1991; Volume 69, Numbe...

By: D. Forste

Medical Reference Publication

Since the discoveries of Jenner and Pasteur in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the medical sciences have made enormous progress in the control of infectious diseases. One measure of that progress was the eradication of smallpox. which was announced by WHO on 8 May 1980. The eradication of smallpox was a tremendous victory for mankind. It was an indication that scientific progress, when combined with international cooperation, has placed within our reach the poss...

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