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Algebra


Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures. Together with geometry, analysis, topology, combinatorics, and number theory, algebra is one of the main branches of pure mathematics.

 
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The Jgrass-newage System for Forecasting and Managing the Hydrolog...

By: R. Mantilla; S. Franceschi; G. Formetta; R. Rigon; A. Antonello

Description: University of Trento, 77 Mesiano St., Trento, 38123, Italy. This paper presents a discussion of the predictive capacity of the implementation of the semi-distributed hydrological modeling system JGrass-NewAge. This model focuses on the hydrological budgets of medium scale to large scale basins as the product of the processes at the hillslope scale with the interplay of the river network. The part of the modeling system presented here deals with the: (i)...

Burnash, R., Ferral, R., and McGuire, R.: A generalized streamflow simulation system – Conceptual modeling for digital computers, report, Joint Fed. and State River Forecast Cent, US Natl. Weather Serv./Calif. State Dept. of Water Resour., Sacramento, Calif., 1973.; Corripio, J.: Vectorial algebra algorithms for calculating terrain parameters from DEMs and solar radiation modelling in mountainous terrain, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 17, 1–24, 2003.; Crawford, N. and Linsle...

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An Approach to Computing Direction Relations Between Separated Obj...

By: Z. Wang; J. Li; H. Yan

Description: Department of Geographic Information Science, Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China. Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups...

Abdelmoty, A. I. and Williams, M. H.: Approaches to the representation of qualitative spatial relations for geographic databases, Geodesy, 40, 204–216, 1994.; Alberto, G. and Charles, S.: To what extent do Gestalt grouping principles influence tactile perception?, Psychol. Bull., 137, 538–561, 2011.; Allen, J.: Maintaining Knowledge about Temporal Intervals, Communications of the ACM, 26, 832–843, 1983.; Bansal, V. K.: Application of geographic information systems in con...

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Modeling Shortwave Solar Radiation Using the Jgrass-newage System ...

By: R. Rigon; O. David; J. L. Chávez; G. Formetta

Description: University of Trento, 77 Mesiano St., 38123 Trento, Italy. This paper presents two new modeling components based on the object modeling system v3 (OMS3) for the calculation of the shortwave incident radiation (Rsw↓) on complex topography settings, and the implementation of several ancillary tools. The first component, NewAGE-SwRB, accounts for elevation slope, aspect, shadow of the sites, and uses suitable parameterization for obtainin...

Allen, P. and Naney, J.: Hydrology of the Little Washita River Watershed, Oklahoma: Data and Analyses, USDA-ARS, ARS-90, December, 1991.; Bird, R. and Hulstrom, R.: Simplified clear sky model for direct and diffuse insolation on horizontal surfaces, Tech. rep., Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA), 1981.; Boland, J., Scott, L., and Luther, M.: Modelling the diffuse fraction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface, Environmetrics, 12, 103–116, 2001.; Co...

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Asam V2.7: a Compressible Atmospheric Model with a Cartesian Cut C...

By: M. König; O. Knoth; U. Vogelsberg; M. Jähn

Description: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. In this work, the fully compressible, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model called All Scale Atmospheric Model (ASAM) is presented. A cut cell approach is used to include obstacles and orography into the Cartesian grid. Discretization is realized by a mixture of finite differences and finite volumes and a state limiting is applied. Necessary s...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Berger, M. and Helzel, C.: A Simplified h-Box Method for Embedded Boundary Grids, Siam J. Sci. Comput., 34, A861–A888.; Bott, A.: Theoretical considerations on the mass and energy consistent treatment of precipitation in cloudy atmospheres, Atmos. Res., 89, 262–269, 2008.; Braun, F. J.: Mesoskalige Modellierun...

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Modeling Short Wave Solar Radiation Using the Jgrass-newage System...

By: J. L. Chávez; R. Rigon; O. David; G. Formetta

Description: University of Trento, 77 Mesiano St., 38123 Trento, Italy. This paper presents two new modelling components based on the Object Modelling System v3 for the calculation of the shortwave incident radiation (R^sw↓) on complex topography settings, and the implementation of several ancillary tools. The first component, NewAGE-SwRB, accounts for slope, aspect, sha...

Stehr, A., Debels, P., Romero, F., and Alcayaga, H.: Hydrological modelling with SWAT under conditions of limited data availability: evaluation of results from a Chilean case study, Hydrol. Sci. J., 53, 588–601, 2008.; Tovar, J., Olmo, F., and Alados-Arboledas, L.: Local-scale variability of solar radiation in a mountainous region, J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 2316–2328, 1995.; Allen, P. and Naney, J.: Hydrology of the Little Washita River Watershed, Oklahoma: Data and Analys...

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An Approach to Computing Direction Relations Between Separated Obj...

By: J. Li; Z. Wang; H. Yan

Description: Department of Geography & Environmental Management, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separ...

Goyal, R. K.: Similarity Assessment for Cardinal Directions Between Extended Spatial Objects, PHD thesis, The University of Maine, USA, 167 pp., 2000.; Egenhofer, M. and Shariff, R.: Metric details for natural-language spatial relations, ACM T. Inform. Syst., 16, 295–321, 1998.; Frank, A. U.: Qualitative spatial reasoning about distances and directions in geographic space, J. Visual Lang. Comput., 3, 343–371, 1992.; Frank, A. U.: Qualitative spatial reasoning: cardinal d...

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The Cache La Poudre River Basin Snow Water Equivalent Modeling wit...

By: R. Rigon; S. K. Kampf; O. David; G. Formetta

Description: University of Trento, 77 Mesiano St., 38123 Trento, Italy. The paper presents a snow water equivalent model as part of the hydrological modeling system NewAge-JGrass. The model take in account of the main physical processes influencing the snow melting (precipitation form separation, melting and freezing modeling) coupled with the snowpack mass conservation equation. The snow melting depends not only on the air temperature but also on the radiati...

Brubaker, K., Rango, A., and Kustas, W.: Incorporating radiation inputs into the snowmelt runoff model, Hydrol. Process., 10, 1329–1343, 1996.; Brutsaert, W.: Evaporation into the Atmosphere: Theory, History, and Applications, vol. 1, Springer, 1982.; Brun, E., David, P., Sudul, M., and Brunot, G.: A nutnerical tnodel to silDulate snow-cover stratigraphy for operational avalanche forecasting, J. Glaciol., 38, 13–22, 1992.; Brutsaert, W.: Hydrology: An Introduction, Cambr...

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Sediment Transport Modelling in a Distributed Physically Based Hyd...

By: J. M. Turowski; S. Rimkus; D. Rickenmann; M. Chiari; P. Molnar; P. Burlando; M. Konz

Description: Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 15, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Bedload sediment transport and erosion processes in channels are important components of water induced natural hazards in alpine environments. A raster based distributed hydrological model, TOPKAPI, has been further developed to support continuous simulations of river bed erosion and deposition processes. The hydrological model simulates all relevant com...

Bahadori, F., Ardeshir, A., and Tahershamsi, A.: Prediction of alluvial river bed variation by SDAR model, J. Hydraulic Res., 44(5), 614–623, 2006.; Badoux, A. and Rickenmann, D.: Berechnung zum Geschiebetransport während der Hochwasser 1993 und 2000 im Wallis, Wasser Energie Luft, 3, 217–226, 100. Jahrgang, 2008 (in German).; Bathurst, J. C., Li, R.-M., and Simons, D. B.: Resistance equation for large-scale roughness, J. Hydr. Div., 107, 1593–1613, 1981.; Beffa, C.: 2D-...

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Sediment Transport Modelling in a Distributed Physically Based Hyd...

By: P. Burlando; M. Konz; P. Molnar; D. Rickenmann; J. M. Turowski; M. Chiari; S. Rimkus

Description: Institute of Environmental Engineering, Hydrology and Water Resources Management, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Straße 15, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Sediment transport and erosion processes in channels are important components of water induced natural hazards in alpine environments. A distributed hydrological model, TOPKAPI, has been developed to support continuous simulations of river bed erosion and deposition processes. The hydrological model simulates a...

Bahadori, F., Ardeshir, A., and Tahershamsi, A.: Prediction of alluvial river bed variation by SDAR model, J. Hydraul. Res., 44(5), 614–623, 2006.; Badoux, A. and Rickenmann, D.: Berechnung zum Geschiebetransport während der Hochwasser 1993 und 2000 im Wallis, 100. Jahrgang, Wasser Energie Luft, 3, 217–226, 2008.; Beffa, C.: 2D-Simulation der Sohlenreaktion in einer Flussverzweigung, Österreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft, 42(1–2), 1–6, 2005.; Brock, B., Willis, I....

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On the Uncertainty of Stream Networks Derived from Elevation Data:...

By: G. B. M. Heuvelink; E. E. Van Loon; T. Hengl

Description: Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. DEM error propagation methodology is extended to the derivation of vector-based objects (stream networks) using geostatistical simulations. First, point sampled elevations are used to fit a variogram model. Next 100 DEM realizations are generated using conditional sequential Gaussian simulation; the stream network map is...

Kyriakidis, P. C., Shortridge, A. M., and Goodchild, M. F.: Geostatistics for Conflation and Accuracy Assessment of Digital Elevation Models, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 13, 677–708, 1999.; Planchon, O. and Darboux, F.: A fast, simple and versatile algorithm to fill the depressions of digital elevation models, Catena, 46, 159–176, 2001.; Quinn, P. F., Beven, K. J., and Lamb, R.: The ln(a/tan b) index: how to calcute it and how to use it within in the TOPMODEL framework, Hy...

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Flexible Joints in Structural and Multibody Dynamics : Volume 4, I...

By: S. Han; O. A. Bauchau

Description: University of Michigan – Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai, 200240, China. Flexible joints, sometimes called bushing elements or force elements, are found in all structural and multibody dynamics codes. In their simplest form, flexible joints simply consist of sets of three linear and three torsional springs placed between two nodes of the model. For infinitesimal deformations, the selection of the lumped spring constants is an eas...

Anand, L.: On H. {H}encky's approximate strain-energy function for moderate deformations, J. Appl. Mech., 46, 78–82, 1979.; Anand, L.: Moderate deformations in extension-torsion of incompressible isotropic elastic materials, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 34, 293–304, 1986.; Angeles, J.: On twist and wrench generators and annihilators, in: Computer-Aided Analysis Of Rigid And Flexible Mechanical Systems, edited by: Pereira, M. S. and Ambrosio, J., Dordrecht, NATO ASI Series, Klu...

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Estimating Velocity from Noisy Gps Data for Investigating the Temp...

By: S. Gubler; R. S. Purves; S. Gruber; V. Wirz; J. Beutel

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Detecting and monitoring of moving and potentially hazardous slopes requires reliable estimations of velocities. Separating any movement signal from measurement noise is crucial for understanding the temporal variability of slope movements and detecting changes in the movement regime, which may be important indicators of the process. Thus, methods capable of estimating velocity and its changes ...

Arenson, L., Hoelzle, M., and Springman, S.: Borehole deformation measurements and internal structure of some rock glaciers in Switzerland, Permafrost Periglac., 13, 117–135, 2002.; Arenson, L.: Unstable alpine permafrost: a potentially important natural hazard – variations of geotechnical behaviour with time and temperature, Ph.D. thesis, Institut for geotechnical engeneering, ETH Zuerich, 2003.; Berthling, I., Eiken, T., Madsen, H., and Sollid, J.: Continuous measureme...

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Stochastic Analysis of Geo-electric Field Singularities as Seismic...

By: J. P. Makris; F. Vallianatos; G. N. Fouskitakis; A. Konstantaras

Description: Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Dept. of Electronics, Chania, Crete, 731 33, Greece. The study of the Earth's electromagnetic field prior to the occurrence of strong seismic events has repeatedly revealed cases where transient electric potential anomalies, often deemed as possible earthquake precursors, were observed on electromagnetic field recordings. In an attempt to understand the nature of such signals, several models have been propose...

Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I A.: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover Publications, New York, 771–820, 1970.; Brockwell, P J. and Davis, R A.: Introduction to Time-Series and Forecasting, Springer-Verlag, New York, 141–148, 1996.; Addison, J F D. and Wermter, S.: Methods for Investigating Memory into Neural Networks Applied to Condition Monitoring, Proceeding of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 380–3...

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Estimating Velocity from Noisy Gps Data for Investigating the Temp...

By: S. Gruber; R. S. Purves; S. Gubler; V. Wirz

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Knowledge of processes and factors affecting slope instability is essential for detecting and monitoring potentially hazardous slopes. Knowing the timing of acceleration or deceleration of slope movements can help to identify important controls and hence to increase our process understanding. For this methods to derive reliable velocity estimations are important. The aim of this stud...

Arenson, L., Hoelzle, M., and Springman, S.: Borehole deformation measurements and internal structure of some rock glaciers in Switzerland, Permafrost Periglac., 13, 117–135, 2002.; Beutel, J., Buchli, B., Ferrari, F., Keller, M., Thiele, L., and Zimmerling, M.: X-sense: sensing in extreme environments, In: Proceedings of design, automation and test in Europe, 2011, IEEE, 1–6, 2011.; Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: Permafrost distribution in the E...

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Structural and Statistical Properties of the Collocation Technique...

By: W. Wagner; W. Dorigo; K. Scipal; S. Zwieback

Description: Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna, Austria. The validation of geophysical data sets (e.g. derived from models, exploration techniques or remote sensing) presents a formidable challenge as all products are inherently different and subject to errors. The collocation technique permits the retrieval of the error variances of different data sources without the need to specify one data set as a reference. I...

Caires, S. and Sterl, A.: Validation of ocean wind and wave data using triple collocation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3098–3114, 2003.; Cantrell, C. D.: Modern Mathematical Methods for Physicists and Engineers, Cambridge University Press, 2000.; Dorigo, W. A., Scipal, K., Parinussa, R. M., Liu, Y. Y., Wagner, W., de Jeu, R. A. M., and Naeimi, V.: Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2605–2616,

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Insight Into Earthquake Sequencing: Analysis and Interpretation of...

By: K. Vasudevan; M. S. Cavers

Description: Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada. Directed graph representation of a Markov chain model to study global earthquake sequencing leads to a time-series of state-to-state transition probabilities that includes the spatio-temporally linked recurrent events in the record-breaking sense. A state refers to a configuration comprised of zones with either the occurrence or non-occurrence of an earthq...

Allan, D. W.: Statistics of atomic frequency standards, Ptoc. IEEE, 54, 221–230, 1966.; Barnes, J. A. and Allan, D. W.: A statistical model of flicker noise, Ptoc. IEEE, 54, 176–178, 1966.; Bird, P.: An updated digital model of plate boundaries, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 4, 1027, doi:10.1029/2001GC000252, 2003.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R., Tolstoy, M., Smith, D. K., Fox, C. G., and Dziak, R. P.: Time-clustering behavior of sprea...

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On the Time to Tracer Equilibrium in the Global Ocean : Volume 5, ...

By: E. Deleersnijder; F. Primeau

Description: Department of Earth System Science, University of California at Irvine, Rowland Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. An important issue for the interpretation of data from deep-sea cores is the time for tracers to be transported from the sea surface to the deep ocean. Global ocean circulation models can help shed light on the timescales over which a tracer comes to equilibrium in different regions of the ocean. In this note, we discuss how the most slowly ...

Delhez, E. J. M., Campin, J.-M., Hirst, A. C., and Deleersnijder, E.: Toward a general theory of the age in ocean modelling, Ocean Model., 1, 17–27, 1999.; Campin, J.-M., Fichefet, T., and Duplessy, J.-C.: Problems with using radiocarbon to infer ocean ventilation rates for past and present climates, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 165, 17–24, 1999.; Deleersnijder, E., Mouchet, A., Delhez, E. J. M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Transient behaviour of water ages in the World Ocean, Math...

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Exploring Uncertainty in Glacier Mass Balance Modelling with Monte...

By: F. Paul; M. Hoelzle; H. MacHguth; J. Oerlemans; R. S. Purves

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we calculated uncertainty in modelled cumulative mass balance over 400 days at one particular point on the tongue of Morteratsch Glacier, Switzerland, using a glacier energy balance model of intermediate complexity. Before uncertainty assessment, the model was tuned to observed mass balance for the investigated time period and its robustness was teste...

Braithwaite, R J.: Positive degree-day factors for ablation on the Greenland ice sheet studied by energy-balance modelling, J. Glaciol., 41, 153–160, 1995.; Anderson, M. and Woessner, W.: The role of the postaudit in model validation, Adv. Water Resour., 15, 167–173, 1992.; Arnold, N., Willis, I., Sharp, M., Richards, K., and Lawson, W.: A distributed surface energy balance model for a small valley glacier: I. Development and testing for Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Valais, Sw...

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Is Snow Sublimation Important in the Alpine Water Balance? : Volum...

By: M. Bernhardt; M. Weber; G. E. Liston; U. Strasser; W. Mauser

Description: Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU), Luisenstr. 37, 80333 Munich, Germany. In alpine terrain, snow sublimation represents an important component of the winter moisture budget, representing a proportion of precipitation which does not contribute to melt. To quantify its amount we analyze the spatial pattern of snow sublimation at the ground, from a canopy and from turbulent suspension during wind-induced snow transport for a high ...

Grell, G. A., Dudhia, J., and Stauffer, D. R.: Tech. Note NCAR/TN–398+STR, Boulder, Colorado, 1995.; Foken, T.: Angewandte Meteorologie – Mikrometeorologische Methoden, Springer Verlag, ISBN 3540003223, 289 pp., Berlin, 2003.; Bernhardt, M., Zängl, G., Liston, G. E., Strasser, U., and Mauser, W.: Using wind fields from a high resolution atmospheric model for simulating snow dynamics in mountainous terrain, Hydrol. Process., 27, in press, 2008a.; Bruland, O., Liston, G. E...

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A Statistical Approach to Modelling Permafrost Distribution in the...

By: A. Brenning; J. Noetzli; S. Gruber; L. Boeckli

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Estimates of permafrost distribution in mountain regions are important for the assessment of climate change effects on natural and human systems. In order to make permafrost analyses and the establishment of guidelines for e.g. construction or hazard assessment comparable and compatible between regions, one consistent and traceable model for the entire Alpine domain is required. ...

Aldrich, J. and Nelson, F.: Linear probability, logit, and probit models, Sage Publications, Inc., 1984.; Allen, S., Gruber, S., and Owens, I.: Exploring steep bedrock permafrost and its relationship with recent slope failures in the Southern Alps of New Zealand, Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 20, 345–356, doi:10.1002/ppp.658, 2009.; Az{ó}car, G. and Brenning, A.: Hydrological and geomorphological significance of rock ...

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