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Algebra


Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures. Together with geometry, analysis, topology, combinatorics, and number theory, algebra is one of the main branches of pure mathematics.

 
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Quantifying Mass Balance Processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefi...

By: H. MacHguth; M. Falvey; G. Casassa; E. Rignot; M. Schaefer

Description: Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were evaluated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of the icefield for spring 2004. The high measured accumulation of snow of up to 15.4 m w....

Aniya, M., Sato, H., Naruse, R., Skvarca, P., and Casassa, G.: The Use of Satellite and Airborne Imagery to Inventory Outlet Glaciers of the Southern Patagonia Icefield, South America, Photogramm. Eng. Rem. S., 62, 1361–1369, 1996.; Aravena, J.-C. and Luckman, B. H.: Spatio-temporal rainfall patterns in Southern South America, Int. J. Climatol., 29, 2106–2120, doi:10.1002/joc.1761, 2009.; Aristarain, A. and Delmas, R.: Firn-...

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Is Snow Sublimation Important in the Alpine Water Balance? : Volum...

By: U. Strasser; W. Mauser; M. Weber; M. Bernhardt; G. E. Liston

Description: Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU), Luisenstr. 37, 80333 Munich, Germany. In alpine terrain, snow sublimation as a component of the winter moisture budget represents a proportion of precipitation which does not contribute to melt. To quantify its amount we analyze the spatial pattern of snow sublimation at the ground, from a canopy and from turbulent suspension during wind-induced snow transport for a high alpine area in the Be...

Anker, D., and Roberts, D.: The lost explorer, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1999. %; %Bernhardt, M., Zängl, G., Liston, G. E., Strasser, U., and Mauser, W.: %Using wind fields from a high resolution atmospheric model for %simulating snow dynamics in mountainous terrain, Hydrol. Process., submitted, 2007a. %; %Bernhardt, M., Strasser, U., Liston, G. E., and Mauser, W.: High %resolution modelling of snow transport in complex terrain using simulated %wind fields, Arct., Anta...

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Exploring Uncertainty in Glacier Mass Balance Modelling with Monte...

By: M. Hoelzle; F. Paul; R. S. Purves; H. MacHguth; J. Oerlemans

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we calculated uncertainty in modelled cumulative mass balance over 400 days at one particular point on the tongue of Morteratsch Glacier, Switzerland, using a glacier energy balance model of intermediate complexity. Before uncertainty assessment, the model was tuned to observed mass balance for the investigated time period and its robustness was teste...

Anderson, M. and Woessner, W.: The role of the postaudit in model validation, Adv. Water Resour., 15, 167–173, 1992.; Braithwaite, R.: On glacier energy balance, ablation, and air temperature, J. Glaciol., 27, 381–391, 1981.; Arnold, N., Willis, I., Sharp, M., Richards, K., and Lawson, W.: A distributed surface energy balance model for a small valley glacier: I. Development and testing for Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Valais, Switzerland, J. Glaciol., 42, 77–89, 1996.; Arnold,...

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Orientation Dependent Glacial Changes at the Tibetan Plateau Deriv...

By: M. Menenti; V. H. Phan; R. C. Lindenbergh

Description: Department of Geosciences and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands. Monitoring glacier changes is essential for estimating the water mass balance of the Tibetan Plateau. Recent research indicated that glaciers at individual regions on the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings are shrinking and thinning during the last decades. Studies considering large regions often ignored however impact of locally varying weather cond...

Bolch, T., Yao, T., Kang, S., Buchroithner, M. F., Scherer, D., Maussion, F., Huintjes, E., and Schneider, C.: A glacier inventory for the western Nyainqentanglha Range and the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, and glacier changes 1976–2009, The Cryosphere, 4, 419–433, doi:10.5194/tc-4-419-2010, 2010.; Duong, H., Pfeifer, N., and Lindenbergh, R.C: Full waveform analysis: ICESat laser data for land cover classification, in: Proceedin...

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Quantifying Mass Balance Processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefi...

By: G. Casassa; M. Schaefer; M. Falvey; E. Rignot; H. MacHguth

Description: Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were validated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of the Icefield from spring 2004. The high measured accumulation of snow as well as the hi...

Aniya, M., Sato, H., Naruse, R., Skvarca, P., and Casassa, G.: The use of satellite and airborne imagery to inventory outlet glaciers of the Southern Patagonia Icefield, South America, Photogramm. Eng. Rem. S., 62, 1361–1369, 1996.; Aravena, J.-C. and Luckman, B. H.: Spatio-temporal rainfall patterns in southern South America, Int. J. Climatol., 29, 2106–2120, doi:10.1002/joc.1761, 2009.; Arendt, E. A.: Randolph Glacier Inve...

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Verification of the Multi-layer Snowpack Model with Different Wate...

By: L. Schmid; O. Eisen; A. Heilig; M. Lehning; N. Wever; C. Fierz

Description: WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Flüelastrasse 11, 7260 Davos Dorf, Switzerland. The widely-used detailed SNOWPACK model has undergone constant development over the years. A notable recent extension is the introduction of a Richards Equation (RE) solver as an alternative for the bucket-type approach for describing water transport in the snow and soil layers. In addition, continuous updates of snow settling and new snow density parametri...

Avanzi, F., Caruso, M., Jommi, C., Michele, C. D., and Ghezzi, A.: Continuous-time monitoring of liquid water content in snowpacks using capacitance probes: a preliminary feasibility study, Adv. Water Resour., 68, 32–41, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2014.02.012, 2014.; Baggi, S. and Schweizer, J.: Characteristics of wet-snow avalanche activity: 20 years of observations from a high alpine valley (Dischma, Switzerlan...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 745 - in ...

By: D. R. Bangham, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

Examen des travaux du ComitC d'experts de la Standardisation biologique Le Corniti: a passe en revue les sujets examines au cours de ses rkcentes reunions et dans son ordre du jour actuel; il a ainsi note qu'ils peuvent &tre rbpartis en deux grandes catkgories, a savoir les normes et les etalons. Le ComitC a egalement note la complexit6 croissante des questions liees a de nombreuses disciplines entrant dans le cadre du mandat du Comite d'experts. De ce fait, il est deven...

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Workbook on Aspects of Dynamical Meteorology a Self Discovery Math...

By: Jan D. Gertenbach

Physics Literature

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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0018, Issue 71 August 1860:...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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The United States Democratic Review : Volume 0028, Issue 156 June ...

By: J. and H. G. Langley

Description:The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature

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The United States Democratic Review : Volume 0029, Issue 159 Septe...

By: J. and H. G. Langley

Description:The United States Magazine and Democratic Review was also (perhaps even primarily) a literary magazine, promoting the development of American literature

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The Rossby Wave Extra Invariant in the Dynamics of 3-d Fluid Layer...

By: A. M. Balk

Description: Department of Mathematics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. We consider an adiabatic-type (approximate) invariant that was earlier obtained for the quasi-geostrophic equation and the shallow water system; it is an extra invariant, in addition to the standard ones (energy, enstrophy, momentum), and it is based on the Rossby waves. The presence of this invariant implies the energy transfer from small-scale eddies to large-scale zonal jet...

Balk, A. M., Nazarenko, S. V., and Zakharov, V. E.: New invariant for drift turbulence, Phys. Lett. A, 152, 276–280, 1991.; Balk, A. M.: A new invariant for Rossby wave systems, Phys. Lett. A, 155, 20–24, 1991.; Balk, A. M.: New conservation laws for the interaction of nonlinear waves, SIAM Rev., 39, 68–94, 1997.; Balk, A. M.: Angular distribution of Rossby wave energy, Phys. Lett. A, 345, 154–160, 2005.; Balk, A. M. and Ferapontov, E. V.: Invariants of 4-wave interactio...

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On the Time to Tracer Equilibrium in the Global Ocean : Volume 5, ...

By: E. Deleersnijder; F. Primeau

Description: Department of Earth System Science, University of California at Irvine, Rowland Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. An important issue for the interpretation of data from deep-sea cores is the time for tracers to be transported from the sea surface to the deep ocean. Global ocean circulation models can help shed light on the timescales over which a tracer comes to equilibrium in different regions of the ocean. In this note, we discuss how the most slowly ...

Broecker, W. S. and Peng, T.-H.: Tracers in the sea, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY., 690 pp., 1982.; Campin, J.-M., Fichefet, T., and Duplessy, J.-C.: Problems with using radiocarbon to infer ocean ventilation rates for past and present climates, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 165, 17–24, 1999.; Cox, M. D.: An Idealized Model of the World Ocean. Part I: The Global-Scale Water Masses., J. Phys. Oceanogr. 19, 1730–1752, 1989.; Delhez, E. J. M., Campin, J....

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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0028, Issue 106 January 186...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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Generating Functionology

By: Herbert S. Wilf

Mathematics document containing theorems and formulas.

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Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 C...

By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical meth...

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Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 C...

By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical meth...

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Develop Computer Programs for Simplifying Sums That Involve Binomi...

By: Donald E. Knuth

Mathematics document containing theorems and formulas.

Excerpt: Some entries in the hypergeometric database. Using the database. Is there really a hypergeometric database?...

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The Calculated Thermodynamic Properties A4 Superfluid Helium-4

By: James S. Brooks

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Liquid helium is a rewarding subject for the study of thermodynamic properties, especially because helium 11, the lower temperature phase, exhibits the property or super fluidity. The hydrodynamics of this phase are extraordinary: both normal viscous behavior and superflow may be exhibited in closely related experiments. Phenomenologically, one speaks of a two-fluid behavior in which the fluid (of density p) acts dynamically as if a fraction of effective de...

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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0018, Issue 70 May 1860: Ya...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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