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Born on 10 December 1954, in Balcesti city, Romania, wrote in three languages: Romanian, French, and English.

Poet, playwright, novelist, writer of prose, tales for children, translator from many languages, experimental painter, philosopher, physicist, mathematician.

American citizen.

He graduated from the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Craiova in 1979, earned a Ph. D. in Mathematics from the State University Moldova at Chisinau in 1997, and continued postdoctoral studies at various American Universities such as University of Phoenix, University of Texas at Austin, etc. after emigration in America.

In U.S. he worked as a software engineer for Honeywell (1990-1995), adjunct professor for Pima Community College (1995-1997), in 1997 Assistant Professor at the University of New Mexico - Gallup Campus, promoted to Associate Professor of Mathematics in 2003, and to full Professor in 2008..

Since June 2007 he was Chair of the Department of Math & Sciences.

During the Ceausescu's era he got in conflict with authorities.  In 1986 he did the hunger strike for being refused to attend the International Congress of Mathematicians at the University of Berkeley, then published a letter in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society for the freedom of circulating of scientists, and became a dissident.  As a consequence, he remained unemployed for almost two years, living from private tutoring done to students.  The Swedish Royal Academy Foreign Secretary Olof G. Tandberg contacted him by telephone from Bucharest.

Not being allowed to publish, he tried to get his manuscripts out of the country through

the French School of Bucharest and tourists, but for many of them he lost track.

Escaped from Romania in September 1988 and waited almost two years in the political refugee camps of Turkey, where he did unskilled works in construction in order to survive: scavenger, house painter, whetstoner.   Here he kept in touch with the French Cultural Institutes that facilitated him the access to books and rencontres with personalities.

Before leaving the country he buried some of his manuscripts in a metal box in his parents vineyard, near a peach tree, that he retrieved four years later, after the 1989 Revolution,  when he returned for the first time to his native country.   Other manuscripts, that he tried to mail to a translator in France, were confiscated by the secret police and never returned.

In March 1990 he emigrated to the United States.

He wrote hundreds of pages of diary about his life in the Romanian dictatorship (unpublished), as a cooperative teacher in Morocco ("Professor in Africa", 1999), in the Turkish refugee camp ("Escaped... / Diary From the Refugee Camp", Vol. I, II, 1994, 1998), and in the American exile - diary which is still going on.

But he's internationally known as the literary school leader for the "paradoxism" movement  which has many advocates in the world, that he set up in 1980, based on an excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, paradoxes in creation paradoxes - both at the small level and the entire level of the work - making an interesting connection between mathematics, philosophy, and literature

[ ].

He introduced the 'paradoxist distich', 'tautologic distich', and 'dualistic distich', inspired from the mathematical logic [ ].

Literary experiments he realized in his dramas: Country of the Animals, where there is no dialogue!, and An Upside-Down World, where the scenes are permuted to give birth to one billion of billions of distinct dramas!

[ ]. 

He stated:

"Paradoxism started as an anti-totalitarian protest against a closed society, where the whole culture was manipulated by a small group. Only their ideas and publications counted. We couldn't publish almost anything.

Then, I said: Let's do literature... without doing literature! Let's write... without actually writing anything. How? Simply: literature-object! 'The flight of a bird', for example, represents a "natural poem", that is not necessary to write down, being more palpable and perceptible in any language that some signs laid on the paper, which, in fact, represent an "artificial poem": deformed, resulted from a translation by the observant of the observed, and by translation one falsifies.

Therefore, a mute protest we did!

Later, I based it on contradictions. Why? Because we lived in that society a double life: an official one - propagated by the political system, and another one real. In mass-media it was promulgated that 'our life is wonderful', but in reality 'our life was miserable'. The paradox flourishing! And then we took the creation in derision, in inverse sense, in a syncretism way. Thus the paradoxism was born. The folk jokes, at great fashion in Ceausescu's 'Epoch', as an intellectual breathing, were superb springs.

The "No" and "Anti" from my paradoxist manifestos had a creative character, not at all nihilistic." Paradoxism, following the line of dadaism, lettrism, absurd theatre, is a kind of up-side down writings!

In 1992 he was invited speaker in Brazil (Universidad do Blumenau, etc.).

He did many poetical experiments within his avant-garde and published paradoxist manifestos: "Le Sens du Non-Sens" (1983), "Anti-chambres/Antipoésies/Bizarreries" (1984, 1989), "NonPoems" (1990), changing the French and respectively English linguistics clichés.  While "Paradoxist Distichs" (1998) introduces new species of poetry with fixed form.

Eventually he edited three International Anthologies on Paradoxism (2000-2004) with texts from about 350 writers from around the world in many languages.

"MetaHistory" (1993) is a theatrical trilogy against the totalitarianism again, with dramas that experiment towards a total theatre: "Formation of the New Man", "An Upside - Down World", "The Country of the Animals".  The last drama, that pioneers no dialogue on the stage, was awarded at the International Theatrical Festival of Casablanca (1995). 

He translated them into English as "A Trilogy in pARadOXisM: avant-garde political dramas"; and they were published by ZayuPress (2004).

"Trickster's Famous Deeds" (1994, auto-translated into English 2000), theatrical trilogy for children, mixes the Romanian folk tradition with modern and SF situations. 

His first novel is called "NonNovel" (1993) and satirizes the dictatorship in a gloomy way, by various styles and artifice within one same style.

"Faulty Writings" (1997) is a collection of short stories and prose within paradoxism, bringing hybrid elements from rebus and science into literature.

His experimental albums "Outer-Art" (Vol. I, 2000 & Vol. II: The Worst Possible Art in the World!, 2003) comprises over-paintings, non-paintings, anti-drawings, super-photos, foreseen with a manifesto: "Ultra-Modernism?" and "Anti-manifesto"

[ ].

Art was for Dr. Smarandache a hobby.  He did:

- graphic arts for his published volumes of verse: "Anti-chambres/ Anti-poésies/ Bizarreries" (mechanical drawings), "NonPoems" (paradoxist drawings), "Dark Snow" & "Circles of light" (covers);

- paradoxist collages for the "Anthology of the Paradoxist Literary Movement", by J. -M. Levenard, I. Rotaru, A. Skemer;

- covers and illustrations of books, published by "Dorul" Publ. Hse., Aalborg, Denmark;

- illustrations in the journal: "Dorul" (Aalborg, Denmark).

Many of his art works are held in "The Florentin Smarandache Papers" Special Collections at the Arizona State University, Tempe, and Texas State University, Austin (USA), also in the National Archives of Valcea and Romanian Literary Museum (Romania), and in the Musee de Bergerac (France).

Twelve books were published that analyze his literary creation, among them: "Paradoxism's Aesthetics" by Titu Popescu (1995), and "Paradoxism and Postmodernism" by Ion Soare (2000).

In 1999 he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

In mathematics he introduced the degree of negation of an axiom or of a theorem in geometry (see the Smarandache geometries which can be partially Euclidean and partially non-Euclidean, 1969), the multi-structure (see the Smarandache n-structures, where a weak structure contains an island of a stronger structure), and multi-space (a combination of heterogeneous spaces).

He created and studied many sequences and functions in number theory. 

He generalized the fuzzy, intuitive, paraconsistent, multi-valent, dialetheist logics to the 'neutrosophic logic' (also in the Denis Howe's Dictionary of Computing, England) and, similarly, he generalized the fuzzy set to the 'neutrosophic set' (and its derivatives: 'paraconsistent set', 'intuitionistic set', 'dialethist set', 'paradoxist set', 'tautological set').

Also, he proposed an extension of the classical probability and the imprecise probability to the 'neutrosophic probability', that he defined as a tridimensional vector whose components are real subsets of the non-standard interval ]-0, 1+[.

He's organizing the 'First International Conference on Neutrosophics' at the University of New Mexico, 1-3 December 2001

[ ].

Since 2002, together with Dr. Jean Dezert from Office National de Recherches Aeronautiques in Paris, worked in information fusion and generalized the Dempster-Shafer Theory to a new theory of plausible and paradoxist fusion (Dezert-Smarandache Theory): .

In 2004 he designed an algorithm for the Unification of Fusion Theories and rules (UFT) used in bioinformatics, robotics, military.

In physics he found a series of paradoxes (see the quantum smarandache paradoxes), and 

emitted the hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe, which is very contradictory among scientists.  Also, considered the possibility of a third form of matter, called unmatter, which is combination of matter and antimatter (or quarks and antiquarks): ].

In philosophy he introduced in 1995 the 'neutrosophy', as a generalization of Hegel's dialectic, which is the basement of his researches in mathematics and economics, such as 'neutrosophic logic', 'neutrosophic set', 'neutrosophic probability', 'neutrosophic statistics'.

Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. This theory considers every notion or idea together with its opposite or negation and the spectrum of "neutralities" (i.e. notions or ideas located between the two extremes, supporting neither nor ). The and ideas together are referred to as .  According to this theory every idea tends to be neutralized and balanced by and ideas - as a state of equilibrium

[ ].

Other small contributions he had in psychology:

[ ],

 and in sociology: [ ].

Invited to lecture at University of Berkeley (2003), Jadavpur University-India (2004), NASA Langley Research Center-USA (2004), NATO Advance Study Institute-Bulgaria (2005), Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics-Russia (2005), Bloomsburg University-USA (1995), University Sekolah Tinggi Informatika & Komputer Indonesia-Malang and University Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga-Indonesia (2006), Minufiya University (Shebin Elkom) – Egypt (2007), etc.

Presented papers at many Sensor or Information Fusion International Conferences (Australia, Sweden, USA, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Canada, Germany).

Very prolific, he is the author, co-author, and editor of over 150 books published by thirty five publishing houses (such as university and college presses, professional scientific and literary presses, such as Springer Verlag (in print), Univ. of Kishinev Press, Pima College Press, ZayuPress, Haiku, etc.) in ten countries and in many languages, over 180 scientific articles and notes, and contributed to over 100 literary and 50 scientific journals from around the world.

He published many articles on international journals, such as: Multiple-Valued Logic - An International Journal (now called Multiple-Valued Logic & Soft Computing), International Journal of Social Economics, International Journal of Applied Mathematics, International Journal of Tomography & Statistics, Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics (Editor-in-Chief), Gaceta Matematica (Spain), Humanistic Mathematics Network Journal, Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Progress in Physics, Infinite Energy (USA), Information & Security: An International Journal, InterStat - Statistics on the Internet (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA), American Mathematical Monthly, Mathematics Magazine, Journal of Advances in Information Fusion (JAIF), Zentralblatt Für Mathematik (Germany; reviewer), Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde (Holland), Advances in Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Intelligencer (Gottingen, Germany), Notices of the American Mathematical Society, etc. and on many International Conference Proceedings.

Some of them can be downloaded from the LANL / Cornell University ( and the CERN web sites.

Hundreds of articles, books, and reviews have been written about his activity around the world.  The books can be downloaded from this

Digital Library of Science:

and from the Digital Library of Arts & Letters: .

As a Globe Trekker he visited over 35 countries that he wrote about in his memories.

International Conferences:

   First International Conference on Smarandache Type Notions in Number Theory,

August 21-24, 1997, organized by Dr. C. Dumitrescu & Dr. V. Seleacu, University of Craiova, Romania.

   International Conference on Smarandache Geometries, May 3-5 2003, organized by Dr. M. Khoshnevisan, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, Australia. 

   International Conference on Smarandache Algebraic Structures, December 17-19, 2004, organized by Prof. M. Mary John, Mathematics Department Chair, Loyola College,  Madras, Chennai - 600 034 Tamil Nadu, India.

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  • Cover Image

Distihuri Paradoxiste

By: Florentin Smarandache

Distihul Paradoxist este format din dou versuri, antitetice unul altuia, dar care împreun se contopesc într'un întreg definind (sau fcând legtur cu) titlul. De regul, al doilea vers neag pe primul, conÛinând aÕadar o noÛiune/sintagm/idee opus (antinomic, antagonic).

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Dincolo Si Dincoace de Paradoxism

By: Florentin Smarandache

Mi-a sosit, de curand, cu po~ta aeriana, 0 carte din Amcrica. Era expcdiata de Florentin Smarandache, din Phoenix. Arizona. un valcean de-al nostru din Balce~ti, fugit Inainte de revolutic prin Turcia ~i "aclimatizat" In Statele Unite. Cinc e Florentin Smarandache: profesor de matematica, aut or a peste cincisprczece volume. poet. initiator al curentului paradoxise acum cercetator la Corporatia de computere Honeywell. Arizona. L-am cunoscut bine pe acest domn In ...

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By: Florentin Smarandache

Stadionul (Central) din Craiova ... Timp excelent ... Aproximativ 50000 de spectatori, veniti ~i din comunele inveeinate ... . Grupuri-grupuri de ehibiti se-ndreapta spre tribune Ie arhipline, eu table la subrat, earti de joe ~i cate-o sticla de yin aseunsa pe sub haine, prin saeo~e. Multimea s-a a~ezat pe seari, s-a ureat pe blocurile din apropiere, pe tabela de marcaj, pe sterna.

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Dark Snow

By: Florentin Smarandache

This book contains a collection of poems compiled together by Florentin Smarandache.

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Creionari Facute Cu Pixu

By: Florentin Smarandache

* Un somer a fost acuzat de abuz în serviciu. * Daca au vazut ca nu pot câstiga meciul nici în ruptul capului, au început cu ruptul picioarelor. * Au fost invitati la masa în acelasi timp: unul – la masa de prânz, si celalalt – la masa de operatie. * Pesimistul sta în eclipsa, optimistul – cu ochii în soare, iar realistul sta sub umbrela. * La capatul aceluiasi drum, pe unu-l astepta succesul, iar pe celalalt – esecul. Mersesera în sens diferit.

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Collected Papers, Vol. 3

By: Florentin Smarandache

This representation is closer to the human mind reasoning. It characterizes/ catches the imprecision of knowledge or linguistic inexactitude received by various observers (that's why T, I, F are subsets - not necessarily single-clements), Uncertainty due to incomplete knowledge or acquisition errors or stochasticity (that's why the subset I exists), and vagueness due to lack of clear contours or limits (that's why T, I, Fare subsets and I exists; in particular for the a...

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Collected Papers, Vol. 2

By: Florentin Smarandache

Abstract. The goal of this paper is to experiment new math concepts and theories, especially if they run counter to the classical ones. To prove that contradiction is not a catastrophe, and to learn to handle it in an (un)usual way. To transform the apparently unscientific ideas into scientific ones, and to develop their study (The Theory of Imperfections). And finally, to interconnect opposite (and not only) human fields of knowledge into a.s-heterogeneous-as-possib...

The "Paradoxist Mathematics" may be understood as Experimental Mathematics, NonMathematics, or even Anti-Mathematics: not in a nihilistic way, but in positive one. The truly innovative researchers will banish the old concepts in oder of check, by heuristic processes, some new ones: their opposites. Don't simply follow the crowd, and don't accept to be manipulated by any (political, economical, social, even scientific, or artistic, cultural, etc.) media! Learn to conrad...

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Collected Papers, Vol. 1

By: Florentin Smarandache

In this paper we defme a function L with will allowus to generalize (separately or simultaneously) some theorems from Numbers Theory obtained by Wilson, Fermat, Euler, Gauss, Lagrange, Leibnitz, Moser, Sierpinski. (Some papers not included in the volume were confiscated by the Secret Police in September 1988, when the author left Romania. He spent 19 months in a Turkish political refugee camp, and emigrated to the United Stales in March 1990. Despite efforts by his fri...

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Colpotul Tacerii

By: Florentin Smarandache

Semhatarul acestor randuri se ana confruntat cu doua asertiuni. Prima. Cine este Florentin Smarandache? A doua Poetul nu are biografie; poezia este biografia sa Dar a doua asertiune vrea sa 0 elimine pe prima Nemaifiind doua nu se pune problema optiunii. Cand l-ar interesa t~i pe cititor viata unui poet? Un cititor impmimit de poezie ar putea raspunde, "niciodata". Mul, impresionat in mod deosebit de poezia sa ar simti nevoia sa posede unele date lJi despre viata lui...

Time opens; the window of a moment; and watches me.

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Circles of Light

By: Florentin Smarandache

This book contains a collection of poems compiled by Florentin Smarandache.

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