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Born on 10 December 1954, in Balcesti city, Romania, wrote in three languages: Romanian, French, and English.

Poet, playwright, novelist, writer of prose, tales for children, translator from many languages, experimental painter, philosopher, physicist, mathematician.

American citizen.

He graduated from the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Craiova in 1979, earned a Ph. D. in Mathematics from the State University Moldova at Chisinau in 1997, and continued postdoctoral studies at various American Universities such as University of Phoenix, University of Texas at Austin, etc. after emigration in America.

In U.S. he worked as a software engineer for Honeywell (1990-1995), adjunct professor for Pima Community College (1995-1997), in 1997 Assistant Professor at the University of New Mexico - Gallup Campus, promoted to Associate Professor of Mathematics in 2003, and to full Professor in 2008..

Since June 2007 he was Chair of the Department of Math & Sciences.

During the Ceausescu's era he got in conflict with authorities. In 1986 he did the hunger strike for being refused to attend the International Congress of Mathematicians at the University of Berkeley, then published a letter in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society for the freedom of circulating of scientists, and became a dissident. As a consequence, he remained unemployed for almost two years, living from private tutoring done to students. The Swedish Royal Academy Foreign Secretary Olof G. Tandberg contacted him by telephone from Bucharest.

Not being allowed to publish, he tried to get his manuscripts out of the country through

the French School of Bucharest and tourists, but for many of them he lost track.

Escaped from Romania in September 1988 and waited almost two years in the political refugee camps of Turkey, where he did unskilled works in construction in order to survive: scavenger, house painter, whetstoner. Here he kept in touch with the French Cultural Institutes that facilitated him the access to books and rencontres with personalities.

Before leaving the country he buried some of his manuscripts in a metal box in his parents vineyard, near a peach tree, that he retrieved four years later, after the 1989 Revolution, when he returned for the first time to his native country. Other manuscripts, that he tried to mail to a translator in France, were confiscated by the secret police and never returned.

In March 1990 he emigrated to the United States.

He wrote hundreds of pages of diary about his life in the Romanian dictatorship (unpublished), as a cooperative teacher in Morocco ("Professor in Africa", 1999), in the Turkish refugee camp ("Escaped... / Diary From the Refugee Camp", Vol. I, II, 1994, 1998), and in the American exile - diary which is still going on.

But he's internationally known as the literary school leader for the "paradoxism" movement which has many advocates in the world, that he set up in 1980, based on an excessive use of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, paradoxes in creation paradoxes - both at the small level and the entire level of the work - making an interesting connection between mathematics, philosophy, and literature

Literary experiments he realized in his dramas: Country of the Animals, where there is no dialogue!, and An Upside-Down World, where the scenes are permuted to give birth to one billion of billions of distinct dramas!

"Paradoxism started as an anti-totalitarian protest against a closed society, where the whole culture was manipulated by a small group. Only their ideas and publications counted. We couldn't publish almost anything.

Then, I said: Let's do literature... without doing literature! Let's write... without actually writing anything. How? Simply: literature-object! 'The flight of a bird', for example, represents a "natural poem", that is not necessary to write down, being more palpable and perceptible in any language that some signs laid on the paper, which, in fact, represent an "artificial poem": deformed, resulted from a translation by the observant of the observed, and by translation one falsifies.

Therefore, a mute protest we did!

Later, I based it on contradictions. Why? Because we lived in that society a double life: an official one - propagated by the political system, and another one real. In mass-media it was promulgated that 'our life is wonderful', but in reality 'our life was miserable'. The paradox flourishing! And then we took the creation in derision, in inverse sense, in a syncretism way. Thus the paradoxism was born. The folk jokes, at great fashion in Ceausescu's 'Epoch', as an intellectual breathing, were superb springs.

The "No" and "Anti" from my paradoxist manifestos had a creative character, not at all nihilistic." Paradoxism, following the line of dadaism, lettrism, absurd theatre, is a kind of up-side down writings!

In 1992 he was invited speaker in Brazil (Universidad do Blumenau, etc.).

He did many poetical experiments within his avant-garde and published paradoxist manifestos: "Le Sens du Non-Sens" (1983), "Anti-chambres/Antipoésies/Bizarreries" (1984, 1989), "NonPoems" (1990), changing the French and respectively English linguistics clichés. While "Paradoxist Distichs" (1998) introduces new species of poetry with fixed form.

Eventually he edited three International Anthologies on Paradoxism (2000-2004) with texts from about 350 writers from around the world in many languages.

"MetaHistory" (1993) is a theatrical trilogy against the totalitarianism again, with dramas that experiment towards a total theatre: "Formation of the New Man", "An Upside - Down World", "The Country of the Animals". The last drama, that pioneers no dialogue on the stage, was awarded at the International Theatrical Festival of Casablanca (1995).

He translated them into English as "A Trilogy in pARadOXisM: avant-garde political dramas"; and they were published by ZayuPress (2004).

"Trickster's Famous Deeds" (1994, auto-translated into English 2000), theatrical trilogy for children, mixes the Romanian folk tradition with modern and SF situations.

His first novel is called "NonNovel" (1993) and satirizes the dictatorship in a gloomy way, by various styles and artifice within one same style.

"Faulty Writings" (1997) is a collection of short stories and prose within paradoxism, bringing hybrid elements from rebus and science into literature.

His experimental albums "Outer-Art" (Vol. I, 2000 & Vol. II: The Worst Possible Art in the World!, 2003) comprises over-paintings, non-paintings, anti-drawings, super-photos, foreseen with a manifesto: "Ultra-Modernism?" and "Anti-manifesto"

- graphic arts for his published volumes of verse: "Anti-chambres/ Anti-poésies/ Bizarreries" (mechanical drawings), "NonPoems" (paradoxist drawings), "Dark Snow" & "Circles of light" (covers);

- paradoxist collages for the "Anthology of the Paradoxist Literary Movement", by J. -M. Levenard, I. Rotaru, A. Skemer;

- covers and illustrations of books, published by "Dorul" Publ. Hse., Aalborg, Denmark;

- illustrations in the journal: "Dorul" (Aalborg, Denmark).

Many of his art works are held in "The Florentin Smarandache Papers" Special Collections at the Arizona State University, Tempe, and Texas State University, Austin (USA), also in the National Archives of Valcea and Romanian Literary Museum (Romania), and in the Musee de Bergerac (France).

Twelve books were published that analyze his literary creation, among them: "Paradoxism's Aesthetics" by Titu Popescu (1995), and "Paradoxism and Postmodernism" by Ion Soare (2000).

In 1999 he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

In mathematics he introduced the degree of negation of an axiom or of a theorem in geometry (see the Smarandache geometries which can be partially Euclidean and partially non-Euclidean, 1969), the multi-structure (see the Smarandache n-structures, where a weak structure contains an island of a stronger structure), and multi-space (a combination of heterogeneous spaces).

He created and studied many sequences and functions in number theory.

He generalized the fuzzy, intuitive, paraconsistent, multi-valent, dialetheist logics to the 'neutrosophic logic' (also in the Denis Howe's Dictionary of Computing, England) and, similarly, he generalized the fuzzy set to the 'neutrosophic set' (and its derivatives: 'paraconsistent set', 'intuitionistic set', 'dialethist set', 'paradoxist set', 'tautological set').

Also, he proposed an extension of the classical probability and the imprecise probability to the 'neutrosophic probability', that he defined as a tridimensional vector whose components are real subsets of the non-standard interval ]-0, 1+[.

He's organizing the 'First International Conference on Neutrosophics' at the University of New Mexico, 1-3 December 2001

Since 2002, together with Dr. Jean Dezert from Office National de Recherches Aeronautiques in Paris, worked in information fusion and generalized the Dempster-Shafer Theory to a new theory of plausible and paradoxist fusion (Dezert-Smarandache Theory):http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/DSmT.htm.

In 2004 he designed an algorithm for the Unification of Fusion Theories and rules (UFT) used in bioinformatics, robotics, military.

In physics he found a series of paradoxes (see the quantum smarandache paradoxes), and

emitted the hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe, which is very contradictory among scientists. Also, considered the possibility of a third form of matter, called unmatter, which is combination of matter and antimatter (or quarks and antiquarks):

In philosophy he introduced in 1995 the 'neutrosophy', as a generalization of Hegel's dialectic, which is the basement of his researches in mathematics and economics, such as 'neutrosophic logic', 'neutrosophic set', 'neutrosophic probability', 'neutrosophic statistics'.

Invited to lecture at University of Berkeley (2003), Jadavpur University-India (2004), NASA Langley Research Center-USA (2004), NATO Advance Study Institute-Bulgaria (2005), Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics-Russia (2005), Bloomsburg University-USA (1995), University Sekolah Tinggi Informatika & Komputer Indonesia-Malang and University Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga-Indonesia (2006), Minufiya University (Shebin Elkom) – Egypt (2007), etc.

Presented papers at many Sensor or Information Fusion International Conferences (Australia, Sweden, USA, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Canada, Germany).

Very prolific, he is the author, co-author, and editor of over 150 books published by thirty five publishing houses (such as university and college presses, professional scientific and literary presses, such as Springer Verlag (in print), Univ. of Kishinev Press, Pima College Press, ZayuPress, Haiku, etc.) in ten countries and in many languages, over 180 scientific articles and notes, and contributed to over 100 literary and 50 scientific journals from around the world.

He published many articles on international journals, such as: Multiple-Valued Logic - An International Journal (now called Multiple-Valued Logic & Soft Computing), International Journal of Social Economics, International Journal of Applied Mathematics, International Journal of Tomography & Statistics, Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics (Editor-in-Chief), Gaceta Matematica (Spain), Humanistic Mathematics Network Journal, Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Progress in Physics, Infinite Energy (USA), Information & Security: An International Journal, InterStat - Statistics on the Internet (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA), American Mathematical Monthly, Mathematics Magazine, Journal of Advances in Information Fusion (JAIF), Zentralblatt Für Mathematik (Germany; reviewer), Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde (Holland), Advances in Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Intelligencer (Gottingen, Germany), Notices of the American Mathematical Society, etc. and on many International Conference Proceedings.

Some of them can be downloaded from the LANL / Cornell University (http://arXiv.org) and the CERN web sites.

Hundreds of articles, books, and reviews have been written about his activity around the world. The books can be downloaded from this

As a Globe Trekker he visited over 35 countries that he wrote about in his memories.

International Conferences:

First International Conference on Smarandache Type Notions in Number Theory,

August 21-24, 1997, organized by Dr. C. Dumitrescu & Dr. V. Seleacu, University of Craiova, Romania.

International Conference on Smarandache Geometries, May 3-5 2003, organized by Dr. M. Khoshnevisan, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, Australia.

International Conference on Smarandache Algebraic Structures, December 17-19, 2004, organized by Prof. M. Mary John, Mathematics Department Chair, Loyola College, Madras, Chennai - 600 034 Tamil Nadu, India.

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has seven chapters. Chapter one provides several basic notions to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces neutrosophic groups and neutrosophic N-groups and gives several examples. The third chapter deals with neutrosophic semigroups and neutrosophic N-semigroups, giving several interesting results. Chapter four introduces neutrosophic loops and neutrosophic N-loops. Chapter five just introduces the concept of neutrosophic groupoids and neutrosophi...

1.1 Groups, N-group and their basic Properties
It is a well-known fact that groups are the only algebraic structures with a single binary operation that is mathematically so perfect that an introduction of a richer structure within it is impossible. Now we proceed on to define a group.
DEFINITION 1.1.1: A non empty set of elements G is said to form a group if in G there is defined a binary operation, called the product and denoted by '•' such that

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

We in this book introduce the notion of pure (mixed) neutrosophic interval bisemigroups or neutrosophic biinterval semigroups. We derive results pertaining to them. The new notion of quasi bisubsemigroups and ideals are introduced. Smarandache interval neutrosophic bisemigroups are also introduced and analysed. Also notions like neutrosophic interval bigroups and their substructures are studied in section two of this chapter. Neutrosophic interval bigroupoids and the ide...

Now we will be using these intervals and work with our results. However by the context the reader can understand whether we are working with pure neutrosophic intervals or neutrosophic of rationals or integers or reals or modulo integers. This chapter has four sections. Section one introduces neutrosophic interval bisemigroups, neutrosophic interval bigroups are introduced in section two. Section three defines biinterval neutrosophic bigroupoids. The final section gives ...

“The Analects of Confucius” are considered a record of the words and acts of Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held. Written during the Spring and Autumn Period through the Warring States Period（475 BC - 221 BC) the Analects is the representative work of Confucianism and continues to have a tremendous influence on Chinese and East Asian thoughts and values today. In neutrosophy, between two ends there are many, sometimes a continuous range of n...

Negative Part 3
You want to know a person truly, not only to understand this person’s words, but also understand this person’s actions and ideas.
Commentary on Negative Part 3
Confucius did not mention to understand people’s ideas. While the words and actions are controlled by the ideas.
Neutrosophic Part 3
The person’s time and energy were limited. For knowing a man truly, besides one person’s ability, other person’s help is needed in many cases, sometimes even the...

A book on the contrasts between the eastern Asian culture versus the western culture on topics such as education, medicine, science, and politics.

Is oriental culture a kind of science?
There lies a crucial difference in that Western science seeks the exterior solutions outside the heart.
However, our ancient sages illustrated that humans are an integral part of the universe, and all the phenomena never skip out of the heart. And very fortunately, many wise men did succeed in cultivating their hearts to testify to the profound truth. So our Eastern classics focus on our inner cultivation. However people, in...

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

The first chapter is introductory in nature and gives a few essential definitions and references for the reader to make use of the literature in case the reader is not thorough with the basics. The second chapter deals with different types of neutrosophic bilinear algebras and bivector spaces and proves several results analogous to linear bialgebra. In chapter three the authors introduce the notion of n-linear algebras and prove several theorems related to them. Many of ...

pARadOXisMul - ultima avangardă
a mileniului doi
1. Definiţie
Paradoxismul este o mişcare internaţională de avangardă în literatură, artă, filozofie, chiar şi ştiinţă, bazată pe folosirea excesivă de antiteze, antinomii, contradicţii, oximorone, parabole, paradoxuri în creaţie. A fost înfiinţat de către scriitorul, artistul, şi omul de ştiinţă Florentin Smarandache în anii 1980 în România, care dorea “lărgirea sferei artistice prin elemente neartistice şi prin experim...

L) Limitele filozofiei
Întreaga filozofie este un tautologism: adevărat în virtutea de formă, pentru că orice idee lansată pentru prima oară este dovedită ca adevărată de către iniţiatorul(ii) său(i). Prin urmare, filozofia este goală sau dezinformativă, şi reprezintă a priori cunoaşterea. Se poate afirma: Totul este adevărat, chiar si falsul!
Şi totuşi, întreaga filozofie este un nihilism: pentru ca orice idee, odată dovedită adevărată, este mai tîrziu dovedită ...

In this book, we consider various many-valued logics: standard, linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, non-Archimedean, p -adic, interval, neutrosophic, etc. We survey also results which show the tree different proof-theoretic frameworks for many-valued logics, e.g. frameworks of the following deductive calculi: Hilbert ’s style, sequent, and hypersequent. Recall that hypersequents are a natural generalization of Gentzen ’s style sequents that was introduced independently by Avr...

1.1 Neutrality concept in logic
Every point of view A tends to be neutralized, diminished, balanced by Non-A. At the same time, in between A and Non-A there are infinitely many points of view Neut-A. Let’s note by A an idea, or proposition, theory, event, concept, entity, by Non-A what is not A, and by Anti-A the opposite of A. Neut-A means what is neither A nor Anti-A, i.e. neutrality is also in between the two extremes.

The experimental digital arts on the front and back covers represent the “World Trade Center Towers before 9/11” and respectively an “Aquatic Monster” done by the cyberartist.

Science and Art resemble Horace’s concordia discors (discordant harmony) from his “Epistles” and both are built on imagination. Imagination is a quality given a man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is (Oscar Wilde). Every great advance in science has issued from a new audacity of imagination (John Dewey). And similarly for the advance in art and letters.

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has eight chapters. The first chapter is introductory in nature. Polynomials with matrix coefficients are introduced in chapter two. Algebraic structures on these polynomials with matrix coefficients is defined and described in chapter three. Chapter four introduces natural product on matrices. Natural product on super matrices is introduced in chapter five. Super matrix linear algebra is introduced in chapter six. Chapter seven claims only after this notion be...

In this chapter we only indicate as reference of those the concepts we are using in this book. However the interested reader should refer them for a complete understanding of this book. In this book we define the notion of natural product in matrices so that we have a nice natural product defined on column matrices, m * n (m ≠ n) matrices. This extension is the same in case of row matrices. We make use of the notion of semigroups and Smarandache semigroups. Also the noti...

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has three chapters. In the first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II, n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader should be well versed with not only linear algebra but also n-linear algebras of type I.

In this chapter we for the first time introduce the notion of n-vector space of type II. These n-vector spaces of type II are different from the n-vector spaces of type I because the n-vector spaces of type I are defined over a field F where as the n-vector spaces of type II are defined over n-fields. Some properties enjoyed by n-vector spaces of type II cannot be enjoyed by n-vector spaces of type I. To this; we for the sake of completeness just recall the definition of...

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has four chapters. The first chapter just introduces n-group which is essential for the definition of n-vector spaces and n-linear algebras of type I. Chapter two gives the notion of n-vector spaces and several related results which are analogues of the classical linear algebra theorems. In case of n-vector spaces we can define several types of linear transformations. The applications of these algebraic structures are given in Chapter 3. Chapter four gives some...

n-VECTOR SPACES OF TYPE I AND THEIR PROPERTIES
In this chapter we introduce the notion of n-vector spaces and describe some of their important properties. Here we define the concept of n-vector spaces over a field which will be known as the type I n-vector spaces or n-vector spaces of type I. Several interesting properties about them are derived in this chapter.
DEFINITION 2.1: A n-vector space or a n-linear space of type I (n 2)

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical meth...

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

We have used the 2-adaptive fuzzy model having the two fuzzy models, fuzzy matrices model and BAMs viz. model to analyze the views of public about HIV/ AIDS disease, patient and the awareness program. This book has five chapters and 6 appendices. The first chapter just recalls the definition of four fuzzy models used in this book and gives illustration of some of them. Chapter two introduces the new n-adaptive fuzzy models. Chapter three uses for the first time 2 adaptiv...

In this chapter for the first time we introduce the new class of n-adaptive fuzzy models (n a positive integer and n ≥ 2) and illustrate it. These n-adaptive fuzzy models can analyze a problem using different models so one can get in one case the hidden pattern, in one case the maximum time period in some case output state vector for a given input vector and so on. So this new model has the capacity to analyze the problem in different angles, which can give multiple sugg...

This book was intended to discuss some paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics from the viewpoint of Multi-Valued-logic pioneered by Lukasiewicz, and a recent concept Neutrosophic Logic. Essentially, this new concept offers new insights on the idea of ‘identity’, which too often it has been accepted as given.

2 Lukasiewicz Multi-Valued-logic: History and Introduction to Multi- Valued Algebra
2.1 Introduction to trivalent logic and plurivalent logic
We all have heard of typical binary logic, Yes or No. Or in a famous phrase by Shakespeare: “To be or not to be.” In the same way all computer hardwares from early sixties up to this year are built upon the same binary logic.
It is known that the Classical Logic, also called Bivalent Logic for taking only two values {0, 1...

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical meth...

Noi pledăm pentru un proces cogniscibil care să nu aibă îngrădiri de nici o formă. Din această cauză, hermeneutica se presupune a fi cât mai diversificată. Interviurile următoare împletesc cultura, ştiinţa, tehnica şi viaţa într-un multi-eu. De aceea volumul se numeşte multirelavititate: adică idei şi metodologii privite din unghiuri cât.
We advocate for a process that does not have restrictions of any form. Therefore, hermeneutics is assumed to be more diversified. N...

Scriitorul şi omul de ştiinţă Florentin Smarandache, cunoştiinţă deosebită, specială, de aproape 20 de ani, este permanent pe drumuri, cu carneţelul de însemnări în buzunar. Este un ambasador autentic al inteligenţei şi talentului românilor, în aceeaşi măsură, acest Geo Bogza al zileleor noastre gata permanent să noteze tot ce trebuie să fie marcat în vreun fel în istoria locurilor pe care le parcurge cu: piciorul, maşina, vaporul, avionul şi nu rareori cu gândul şi ochi...

A book on Smarandache's achievements throughout his life time with a short history on his personal life.

In the beginning, this international avant-garde was a mutism: to make literature by not writing literature at all!! (any mathematical/chemical/physical etc. abstract sign, any drawing, draft, picture, graffito (having no words, no letters) could mean a poem; the non-literature created became, paradoxically, a new kind of literature; later the paradoxism has generalized the old term of for the n-dimensional and other scientific (Lobacevsky, Riemann, Banach, etc.) spaces...

Vă mulţumesc că m-aţi dispreţuit, umilit, că m-aţi împins spre emigrare unde nu mai sunt dispreţuit, nu mai sunt umilit, mi se respectă creaţiile şi persoana. Şi pentru toate acestea, mă simt mai patriot ca niciodată.

Bere cu cântec
În restaurant, bând bere cu prietenii de clasă, și fredonând toți
cântece pentru… copii de grădiniță:
Înfloresc grădinile,
Ceru-i ca oglinda,
Fluturii cu miile
Au pornit colinda!...
Și consumatorii de la mesele din jur — uitându-se surprinși la noi,
neștiind ce să creadă!
Beer song
The restaurant, drinking beer with friends and class humming all
songs ... kindergarten children:
Blooming gardens,
He asked her the mirror,
Butterflies by the t...

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

The authors in this book have analyzed the socio-economic and psychological problems faced by People with Disabilities (PWDs) and their families. The study was made by collecting data using both fuzzy linguistic questionnaire by interviews in case they are not literates from 2,15,811 lakhs people. This data was collected using the five Non Government Organizations (NGOs) from northern Tamil Nadu.

The main objective of this was to understand the basic psychological and social problems faced by the PWDs and their caretakers. To interpret the collected data, tabulations and analysis were made. Efforts were made to highlight the inferences in each table and in few places comments were made in order to use it for fuzzy analysis. Following is the list of organizations and the total population from 5 blocks is listed below.

A book on Florentin Smarandache's travels through Russia.

Rusia – mamă vitregă pentru România!
În Moscova, sunt 11 linii de metrou. Pe hartă, apar cu diverse culori. Vechiul oraş e cuprins în interiorul liniei 5 (centura). Nouln oraş s-a dezvoltat împrejur. Tunelul metroului trece când pe sub râuln Moscova, când pe deasupra, pe poduri solide. Până la aeroport, am schimbat două autobuze şi două metrouri. Dmitri şi Larissa m au condus. Îmi părea rău de despărţire, dar mă bucuram de întoarcerea acasă – am atâtea de făcut (s-au ad...