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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 655: Resistance of Vectors of Disease to Pesticides

By A. N. Alekseev

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Book Id: WPLBN0000170380
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 3.0 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 655: Resistance of Vectors of Disease to Pesticides  
Author: A. N. Alekseev
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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APA MLA Chicago

Alekseev, A. N. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 655. Retrieved from http://community.worldlibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
1. INTRODUCTION The WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control met in Geneva from 3 to 9 June 1980. Dr I.D. Ladnyi, Assistant Director- General, opened the meeting on behalf of the Director-General and pointed out that resistance to pesticides in vectors1 of disease has been recognized as a major problem faced by Member States in the control of vectorborne diseases. The last time this problem was considered by a WHO Expert Committee was in 1975 (1). Since then, the number of vector species resistant to insecticides and the size of the endemic areas affected by resistance have continued to increase while new types of resistance and cross-resistance have also been observed. This trend has not, however, been offset by the development and industrial production of alternative insecticides that would be within the means of vector control programmes in the developing countries. The situation has become very critical in certain areas of the world where, for example, malaria vectors can no longer be satisfactorily controlled by the use of the available pesticides. Development of resistance in other vector species and rodent reservoirs of disease has also seriously impeded control campaigns and greatly added to their cost. In view of this situation, the Committee was requested to advise the Organization on the status of resistance, its impact on disease control, and new knowledge acquired on possible measures for its suppression. The Organization has long had a programme of monitoring the spread of resistance based on the use of standard methods of measuring the susceptibility of vector species. The Committee was requested to advise the Organization on ways of improving the programme by speedier monitoring, so that present strategies for the

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Page 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 . Present status of resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1 General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Resistance in arthropod vectors ..................................... 9 2.2.1 Anopheline mosquitos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.2 Culicine mosquitos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.3 Other arthropods of public health or veterinary importance ....... 12 2.2.4 Nontarget organisms ........................................ 14 2.2.5 Resistance in reservoirs and intermediate hosts of disease . . . . . . . . 14 3 . Impact of pesticide resistance on the control of vectors and reservoirs of disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Impact on malaria vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 The African Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 The Region of the Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 The South-East Asia Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 The European Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.5 The Eastern Mediterranean Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.6 The Western Pacific Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Impact on vectors of other diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 1 Culicine mosquitos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Othervectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Impact on disease reservoirs: rodents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 General conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . Present status of research on resistance of vectors to pesticides ............. 24 4.1 Mosquitos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2 Houseflies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2.1 Pyrethroid resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2.2 Insect development inhibitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.3 Ticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4 Biochemistry of resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.4.1 Mixed function oxidases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.4.2 Hydrolases, esterases and glutathione-dependent transferases . . . . . 29 4.4.3 Reduced sensitivity of the nervous system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.4.4 Reduced sensiti~ityo f acetylcholinesterase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.4.5 Additional preliminary biochemical studies on mosquitos . . . . . . . . . 33 4.4.6 Resistance to insect development inhibitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.5 Genetics of resistance ............................................. 36 4.5.1 Anopheles albimanus .......................................

 

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